Landmines

Antipersonnel landmines are explosive devices designed to injure or kill people. They lie dormant for years and even decades under, on or near the ground until a person or animal triggers their detonating mechanism. Antipersonnel mines cannot be aimed: they indiscriminately kill or injure civilians, soldiers, peacekeepers and aid workers alike.

Made of plastic, metal or other materials, they contain explosives and some contain pieces of shrapnel. They can be activated by direct pressure from above, by pressure put on a wire or filament attached to a pull switch, by a radio signal or other remote firing method, or even simply by the proximity of a person within a predetermined distance. 

When triggered, a landmine unleashes unspeakable destruction. The blast causes injuries like blindness, burns, destroyed limbs and shrapnel wounds. Sometimes the victim dies from the blast, due to loss of blood or because they don't get to medical care in time. Those who survive and receive medical treatment often require amputations, long hospital stays and extensive rehabilitation.

Stepping on a blast antipersonnel mine will invariably cause foot and leg injuries, and secondary infections usually resulting in amputation. Fragmentation mines project hundreds of metal fragments, showering the victim with deep wounds. Bounding fragmentation mines are more powerful versions: they spring up about 1 meter and then explode, firing metal fragments to a large radius.

The Mine Ban Treaty defines an antipersonnel mine as: "a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons." (Article 2.1)

Landmines are everywhere. According to Landmine Monitor, over 75 countries and territories in all regions of the world are affected by landmines and/or explosive remnants of war. Nobody knows how many mines are in the ground. But the actual number is less important than their impact: it can take only two or three mines or the mere suspicion of their presence to render a patch of land unusable.  
  • PRASDO work related to Landmines
  • The human Costs
  • Civilians Bear the Brunt
  • Humanitarian Law
  • Long-term Effects
  • Lethal Obstacles to Economic Growth
  • Children are Victimized
  • Military Arguments Do not Hold Up
  • The Ban Works!
  • Peace and Security
  • Border Protection Alternatives
  • Every Country Has a Duty
PRASDO Work Related to Landmines
  • To create and promote awareness on Landmines, victim assistance and rehabilitation
  • To support the International Campaign to Ban Landmines  (ICBL) to achieve objectives. In that regard PRASDO is lobbying in favor of Landmine Ban Treaty
  • To encourage media in highlighting the issues of landmines in Pakistan
  • To mobilize and effectively utilize the youth volunteers in campaigns against landmines
  • To engage religious scholars to condemn the use and proliferation of landmines
  • To conduct research on various aspects of landmines, its consequences and Survivors.
The Human Costs:
Antipersonnel landmines still maim and kill ordinary people every day. They blow off their victims' legs, feet, toes and hands. They fire shrapnel into their faces and bodies. They kill.

Civilians Bear the Brunt:
The vast majority of victims are civilians and not soldiers. Year after year, Landmine Monitor has reported that civilians account for 70 to 85 percent of casualties. This is not just during a conflict – most of the countries where casualties are reported are at peace.

Humanitarian Law 
Antipersonnel mines are indiscriminate and inhumane weapons and therefore go against international humanitarian law. The law of war imposes certain restrictions on how combatants operate. It says that they have to distinguish between civilian and military targets and that the injuries inflicted should be proportionate with military objectives. Antipersonnel landmines fail both the discrimination and the proportionality tests. Landmines are indiscriminate because a landmine is triggered by its victim, whether military or civilian. Landmines are inhumane because they inflict brutal injuries and have disastrous long-term consequences. 

Long-term Effects 
Once planted, landmines don't go away unless they are cleared away. Landmines sown during the First World War are still causing death and destruction in parts of Europe and North Africa. Landmines don’t obey peace agreements or ceasefires. The only way to prevent long-term damage is to stop any landmine use altogether and devote resources to clearing minefields and helping mine victims.
  • Lethal Obstacles to Economic Growth
  • Landmines slow repatriation of refugees and displaced people, or even prevent it altogether.
  • They hamper the provision of aid and relief services and threaten, injure and kill aid workers.
  • Medical treatment for landmine victims, where available, is costly, burdening an already overstretched health-care system.
  • Communities are deprived of their productive land: farm land, orchards, irrigation canals and water points may be no longer accessible.
  • Mines also cut off access to economically important areas, such as roads, electricity pylons and dams.
  • A landmine incident may cost a family their breadwinner.
  • Vocational training and support are often not available so many survivors struggle to make a living after their accident.
  • On the flip-side, a mine-affected country stands to gain international assistance for mine clearance and victim assistance once they ban landmines and join the Mine Ban Treaty. Donor governments are understandably reluctant to fund demining in countries until they have given up landmines altogether.
Children are Victimised:
A child who is injured by a landmine will face months of recovery… if they don't die and if they get treated in time. Many are killed on the spot due to blood loss, shock or damage to vital organs. A growing child with a prosthetic limb will need it refitted and worn in each year. Some never return to school after their accident. Many face social exclusion, for example, they are not seen as fit to marry. Like adult victims, they will face enormous practical, economic, social and psychological challenges in their rehabilitation and reintegration process. 

Military Arguments Don’t Hold Up:
The military arguments for using antipersonnel landmines are flawed. The International Committee of the Red Cross' 1996 study Antipersonnel Landmines - Friend or Foe?concluded that antipersonnel mines are not indispensable weapons of high military value and they don’t necessarily offer any military advantage. In fact "their use in accordance with military doctrine is time-consuming, expensive and dangerous and has seldom occurred under combat conditions", the group of military experts concluded. Landmines are not needed by a modern army. While in the past they may have protected borders and slowed advancing troops, now most armies are mobile and can get through a minefield in less than 30 minutes. Modern motion detection equipment, night detection technology and strategically placed guns can protect military installations, borders and other areas better than landmines. Also, landmines injure and kill soldiers - the very people they are meant to protect. For example, in the 1991 Gulf War, landmines caused 34% of USA casualties. In any case, the long-term humanitarian costs of mines far outweigh any limited military utility. This is why many former military personnel support a ban on antipersonnel mines and reject mine use, such as in this letter to the White House from U.S. military veterans and in thisarticle by Lt. General Robert G. Gard Jr. (USA, Ret.), published in the Huffington Post in 2009. If a country’s military insists that antipersonnel landmines are still essential from a military point of view, suggest they look at the ICRC’s study mentioned above. Also, encourage them to do their own study to review their mine policy and its impact, including on their own soldiers.

The Ban Works!
Banning landmines makes a difference. We have made a great deal of headway since the Mine Ban Treaty came into force in March 1999. The global stigma attached to these weapons has led to a virtual halt in the global trade in antipersonnel mines, a sharp drop in the number of producers and a startling reduction in the number of governments laying mines, even among states that still refuse to officially join the treaty. Vast tracts of land have been cleared and put back into productive use; there has been widespread and extensive destruction of stockpiled mines; and most importantly, there are now fewer new mine victims each year.

Peace and Security
Banning landmines increases peace and security and can be a valuable peace-building tool. For example, Greece and Turkey, both long-term rivals with border disputes used their shared commitment to joining the Mine Ban Treaty as a confidence building measure. Some states have joined the Mine Ban Treaty despite ongoing internal conflict e.g. Colombia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In the case of Cyprus, the government joined the treaty although they are not in full control of the territory.

Border Protection Alternatives 
Mines are largely ineffective in protecting border regions, for example from smugglers, illegal immigrants or non-state armed groups. Ask your target government to provide information on whether and how landmines have been an effective deterrent for a specific stated purpose e.g. to stop smuggling. (Usually they cannot prove effectiveness.) Instead of offering protection, minefields terrorise and impoverish the communities living in the area. Alternatives exist and include: engaging in dialogue with a neighbour, mobile and fixed border patrol and motion detection equipments and barriers.

Every Country Has a Duty
Everyone’s support is needed along the road to a mine-free world -- no matter whether the country is mine-affected or not or whether they are large or small. Joining the Mine Ban Treaty is in the interests of mine-affected countries because it will spur international support for their landmine problem. For countries with no mines in stockpile or in the ground, joining the Mine Ban Treaty is also in their interests as they will gain a higher moral standing within the diplomatic world. As Kenya’s Ambassador Peter O. Ole Nkuraiyia, Secretary-General of the 2004 Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World observed: “We are hosting this landmark Summit as an act of solidarity with mine-affected countries in our sub-region, in Africa as a whole, and throughout the world, with a view to addressing the plight of mine victims.” All governments should listen to their citizens and the international community who demand that they take a stand, otherwise they risk becoming moral outcasts. Even interim steps that fall short of joining the Mine Ban Treaty are valuable e.g. the provision of information on landmine stockpiles, or voting in favour of a resolution on the treaty.

ICBL:
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) is a global network in over 90 countries that works for a world free of antipersonnel landmines, where landmine survivors can lead fulfilling lives. The Campaign was awarded theNobel Peace Prize in recognition of its efforts to bring about the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty. Since then, we have been advocating for the words of the treaty to become a reality, demonstrating on a daily basis that civil society has the power to change the world.